general survey of the law relating to companies as contained in the. Companies Act Under the law a company incorporated under the Act is a distinct entity. COMPANY LAW: COURSE CONTENT INTRODUCTION The formation and winding up of a company in Kenya is governed by t h e Company's Act Cap of. to its very existence”. Another comprehensive and clear definition of a company is given by Lord . Saloman's case established beyond doubt that in law a registered company is an entity distinct from its .. Write notes on: a). Chartered .
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Companies and Partnerships Compared. (a) A company can be created only by certain prescribed methods - most commonly by registration under the. These are my lecture notes from our lectures on Company Law. They are based on Cases and Materials in Company Law, (Eighth Edition) L. Sealy and Sarah. week textbook notes: the nature of company: company/corporation, is collection of people who by law, have exist and have rights and duties separate/distinct.
He did this on the instructions of promoters. This is called the doctrine of ultra vires. Right to attend any general meetings of the company and to receive any notices which members are entitled to receive. Section 2 a exempts a company that is a wholly owned subsidiary of another company from the obligation of preparing group accounts. Every prospects must be dated section The following activities have also been held incidental to carrying of business: Position in India The courts in India do not seem to have taken the doctrine seriously.
Sec of the Act states that the name of the company must be fully a n d properly mentioned on all documents issued by it. Where an officer of a company signs, on behalf of the company, a bill of exchange, promissory note.
Case law in this case, Hendon vs. Alderman Holding and subsidiary companies. Although both holding and subsidiary companies are separate entities there are instances where a subsidiary may loose its separate identity to a certain extent. Investigation of company membership. Section s empowers the registrar to appoint one or more c o m p e t e n t inspectors to investigate and report on the membership of any company for the p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n g t h e t r u e p e r s o n s w h o a r e o r h a v e b e e n financially interested in the success or failure of the company or a b l e t o c o n t r o l o r t o influence the policy of the company.
To investigate the corporate veil is lifted to ascertain the real persons controlling it.
Take over Bids. This is illustrated in the case Re Bufle press Ltd. Fraudulent conduct of Business. Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of company. Advantages of Incorporation. Limited liability. Transferability of shares. Shares in a company can be transferred subject to restrictions in the articles of associations from one person to another without the consent of other members.
Separate Legal entity. A company is not affected by the death, insanity or bankruptcy of a member. Control Control can be gained by acquisition of majority shares which carry voting power. Permanent existence.
Separation of ownership and management. Shareholders are owners of the company. Expert management. Public confidence. Formation and running of a company is regulated by the provisions o f t h e companies Act and various other acts. Social Advantages A company helps to gather savings from the public and invests them in sound industrial and commercial ventures. Disadvantages of incorporation 1. Documents requited like the memorandum of Association, the articles, the prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus are usually drawn by legal experts who charge high fees for their preparation.
There is no secrecy regarding the affairs of a company. Wide publicity of the company affairs may lead to economic sabotage by its rivals. It is very expensive to administer a company. This relates to requirements pertaining the holding of general and statutory meetings and r e t u r n s o f a n n u a l a c c o u n t s.
A company must pay taxes as a legal person while this is not a requirement for partnerships. There are many formalities before a business starts trading. The winding up of a company is widely published thus exposing the property of the company to an insecure position.
Corporation is a person in law i. Types of corporations: Has only one member. Have more than one member. Are classified according to the means the artificial corporate personality has been granted: Nowadays charters are given to non-profit making bodies of public importance good.
Are those created by compliance with the terms of an act of parliament. In limited liability concept was introduced. Types of registered companies 1.
Public companies Under section 1 1 are formed by seven or more members, the purpose being to attract investment from the general public. Private companies.
Formed by two or more members. Defined by sec.
Joint holders of shares are treated as a single member. Liability of members may be limited when the company is formed by; a Shares. Members are liable to the extent of the amount paid on their shares, including share premium if any. There is no liability regarding unissued capital.
In case of private companies a guarantee is usually required before credit is given. They are non-profit making organizations. Where there is no share capital, there is no liability or the members unless and until the company goes into liquidator in which case they were liable to the extent to which they have agreed by the memorandum of association to contribute to the assets of the company.
The guarantee is usually to contribute Sh1 though it may be more. An unlimited company may re-register as a limited company by s h a r e s o r guarantors unless it has previously been converted from a limited to an unlimited company. Members must pass a special resolution agreeing to the change, and the resolution must make the appropriate alterations so that it c o n f i r m s t o t h e requirements. There is no limit to the liability of the members. An unlimited company can avoid giving publicity to its financial affairs.
An unlimited company can be formed by: All members must consent in writing and all the consents together w i t h a statutory declaration by the directors that the consents have been obtained and ac o p y of the memorandum and articles altered so as to confirm to those of an unlimited company.
Special features of unlimited companies. Re Borough commercial and building society If at the time it acquires the shares the company knows that its existing assets and amounts which it could expect to exact from its members on winding up will not be enough to satisfy its liabilities the acquisition of the shares will be set a side as a fraud on its creditors Mitchell vs.
The period for other companies is 14 days. Other instances of unlimited liability. The section does not apply as regards damages after awarded e. This alternative is hardly ever adopted in practice. Separate legal personality of a company The case, which established the independent legal personality of a company, Salomon vs. Salomon and company Ltd 1, 1. Major consequences of the Salomon case. There is thus need for members to have some control over the board. Some of the ways the member can achieve this control was: The ultra vires rule.
Shareholders can seek a court injunction wherever directors involve in transaction that are beyond the company powers. These days the courts construct objects clause widely so that this control is often more apparent than real Re New Finance and Mortgage Co.
Ltd Also acts by directors which are defective whether because of lack of authority or q u o r u m o r because of some defect I their appointment or because of t h e i r motives were improper, can be validated by ordinary resolution of the members after full disclosure of the facts to them in a general meeting, provided the acts in question are not ultra vires the company e.
Branford vs. Branford Y4. A company may by ordinary resolution remove a director before the expiration of h i s p e r i o d of office regardless of the way in which he was appointed n o t withstanding anything in its articles or any agreement in his favour section 1. Special notice of 28 days to the company is required of the intention to move the resolution sec.
Following the acceptance of limited liability in Salomon, certain protections are given to creditors and potential creditors. Exceptions to the rule of separate legal personality. Companies act If the membership fall below the statutory minimum for six months. Public interest Personal qualities of shareholders may be investigated in public interest Daimler Co.
Ltd vs. Gilford motor Co. Horne shareholders may be personally liable. Personal relationship company sec. This is because a director can be easily be removed without a mistake of in part, unless there is a special clause in articles as in Bushell v. However in Ebrahim vs. This rule applies not to all private companies but to personal relationship companies.
Personal relationship companies are in essence partnerships where each member assumes continuing involvement in management. In order to ascertain whether the company is a personal relationship company, it is necessary to lift the corporate veil and discover the hopes and aspirations of the members. In Re. The process is grouped in the following stages: Promotion 2. Incorporation or Registration 3. Capital subscription 4. Commencement of business It should be noted that a private company need only to go through the first two stages only.
A public company must go through all the four stages. Promotion therefore has to do with the discovery of a business idea which can be p r o f i t a b l y u n d e r t a k e n b y a c o mp a n y a n d i n c l u d e s p r e l i m i n a r y a n d d e t a i l e d investigation of the feasibility of the idea, assembling of business elements and making provisions of the funds necessary to launch the enterprise as a going concern.
Thus stages can be summarized as under: Estimating the cost of production, selling price of goods and services and the amount of profits likely. Presentation to the public and underwrites the business proposition in order to m a k e p e o p l e t o m a n a g e i n t h e v e n t u r e. Registration or incorporation This involves registering the company with the registrar of companies under the companies Act. For a public company membership should be at least seven and at least two for a private company.
The people who are involved in registration of a company are called promoters. The following activities or steps are taken by promoters in order to register the company. Section 17 of the business names Act cap lists instances when a name is deemed undesirable: Where the name chosen suggests a criminal or immoral intent.
The resolution changing the name must be a special resolution. After changing the name the company must within fourteen days give notice of its change of name to the register of companies. The registrar will make the change and publish the fact in the official Kenya Gazette. Memorandum of Association Contains conditions upon which the company is allowed to be incorporated.
It defines and sets the limits of the powers of the company. The memorandum also sets the objects of the company. Articles enable the company operate in a way to achieve the aims and objectives set out in the memorandum of association. Nominal capital is the maximum amount of capital that a company aims to raise. A declaration that all the requirements of the companies Act and other formalities relating to registration have been complied with.
The declaration has to be signed by an advocate, a person named as director or company secretary.
Immediately after registration, the following true documents are required: Particulars of the directors and the secretary need to be filed with the registrar within fourteen days of their appointment. If all requirements of the Act have been complied with, he will register the company and place, its name in the register of companies.
A certificate of incorporation will be issued where upon the registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is incorporated. It should be noted that presentation of documents does not mean automatic r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o m p a n y.
In R vs. It was held that where promoters are aggrieved by the decision of the registrar they can apply for order of mandamus to issue against the registrar. It was held by Lord Cairns in this case that: W h e n o n c e t h e m e m o r a n d u m i s r e g i s t e r e d a n d t h e c o mp a n y h o l d s o u t t o t h e world as a company undertaking business willing to receive shareholders and ready to contract engagements then it would be of most disastrous consequences if at all that has been done, any person was allowed to go back and enter into examination of the circumstances attending original registration and the regularity of the execution of the documents.
The certificate cannot be disputed on any grounds and cannot be challenged even: Other case law relation to incorporation is Jubilee cotton mills Ltd vs. Circumstances when incorporation can be withdrawn: This is the case in Bowman and others vs.
However on technical grounds the action failed. Registrar of joint stock companies Ex-parte the A. G QBX a firm of Accountants sought to register a company on behalf of their client. The registrar accepted the name and registered the company issuing a certificate. Judge Ackner LS stated that though prostitution per se was not unlawful under the English law it was contra Moros bonus. Hence the registrar was entitled to quash registration and withdraw the certificate. In Salomon vs. Salomon and company Ltd AG 22 Lord Parker in the course of his judgment suggested that courts would be ready to go behind the certificate and nullify the registration of a company on the grounds that the entity which was not corporate body with the status and capacity conferred by the Act.
A company becomes an enemy if persons controlling it defacto are resident in an enemy country or wherever resident are adherent of taking instruction from or acting under the control of the enemy Lord Parker. A company becomes an enemy if it draws its membership from an e n e m y country.
A case law relating the above is Daimler company Ltd vs. In this case it was held that upon incorporation and in essence of any fraud on the part of the promoters the company becomes a legal person separate and distinct from its members, however closely it may be controlled by those members.
Another cases supporting the separate entity are tulstail vs. Stegmann 2QB In Lee vs. He died while on duty and it was held that a company being a legal person separate and distinct from its members is capable of employing and dismissing workers. Another case in support of separate entity is the Mc Aura vs. He affected an insurance policy on the timber in his own name with several companies. Promoters are the first directors of the company. To raise capital directors will be called to deliberate on the following: If the directors wish to invite the public to subscribe for its shares, they will file a copy of the prospectus with the registrar of companies.
On the advertised date, the prospectus will be issued to the public investors can obtain the prospectus from the registered office or from the bankers.
The bankers will then f o r w a r d all applications to the company and the directors will consider the allotment of shares. If the share applications meet a minimum subscription as disclosed i n t h e prospectus, directors will allot shares to the applicants.
Allotment letters are then sent to those given shares and regret letters to those who are not. This includes issuance o f prospectus, and whether the minimum subscription was raised. Form which must be given to the registrar confirms the following: Having given for and and the statement in lieu of p r o s p e c t u s t h e registrar shall certify that the company is entitled to commence business and issue it with a Trade certificate. If the company defaults on the above, contracts entered by it will be provisional only and not binding on it.
Section 3 b provides a penalty for breaching t h e conditions i. Section 3 subsections 7 exempts private companies from the conditions and restrictions thus a private company can start business without the t r a d i n g certificate.
A promoter is the person who conceives the idea of forming a company and who undertakes, does and goes through all the formalities and incidental preliminaries of incorporating a company. In Whaley Bridge Calico printing company vs.
Section 45 5 a provides that promoter means a promoter who has party to the s e p a r a t i o n of the prospectus; or the portion thereof containing the untrue statement, but does not include any person acting in a professional capacity for p e r s o n s e n g a g e d i n t h e f o r ma t i o n o f t h e c o mp a n y.
I f a n y s u c h p e r s o n a c t s beyond the scope of his professional duty and helps in any way in the formation of a company or in preparations for the management of its affairs, he will become a promoter great wheal polgooth company Ltd; Re 53 LS Ch. Function of the promoters The following are the functions of the promoters: Decide on the company name and ascertain that it is accepted by the registrar.
Prepare memorandum and Articles of Association. Nomination of directors, Bankers, auditors and secretary and the registered office of the company. Printing memorandum and articles of association.
Registration of the company. Issue of prospectus. Legal status of promoter In Lindley and Wigpool Iron ore vs. Promoters are in a fiduciary position: Cape Breton company Re.
D b To give benefit of negotiation to the company. Erlanger vs. The right of rescission is lost if the parties cannot be relegated to their original position this happens: He must also disclose the profit he is making out of the deal.
Promoters need to fully disclose his profit and his personal interest in a transaction. A case in support of this is the Liluck vs. Barress AC Lady well winning company Ltd B Brookers 35 ch. It was held that the vendors were not promoters when they bought the mine and they were therefore under no fiduciary duty to disclose their interest and account for the profit they had made. He must avoid seeking.
He must guard against taking advantage of position or seek under influence or participate in fraud.
Section 39 of the act states that a prospectus shall be dated; and that date unless the contrary is proved be taken as the date of p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e prospectus. Section 40 provides that a prospectus issued shall state the matters specified in p a r t 1 of the third schedule. Chapter 7 specifies the form and contents of a prospectus. A prospectus must be truthful and promoters can be held responsible liable for any misstatement in the prospectus.
If a prospectus is found untruthful: For civil liability 3. Section 45 1 provides that the following persons shall be l i a b l e t o p a y compensation to all persons who subscribe for any untrue statement included therein.
Section 45 2 provides defences to liabilities under section 45 1 such persons shall not be liable if he proves. Section 46 1 of the Act a prospectus may attract criminal liability. An untrue statement in prospectus may lead to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a time not exceeding ten thousand shillings or both u n l e s s h e p r o v e s e i t h e r t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t w a s i m m a t e r i a l o r t h a t h e h a d reasonable ground to believe and did up to the time of issue, believe that the statement was true.
Criminal proceedings are only made where there is willful untrue statement and not otherwise. Remuneration of promoters A promoter has not right for compensation unless there is a contract. In Clintons claim 2 ch. A promoter takes remuneration for his services in one of the following ways: Article 80 table A provides that directors can pay all expenses i n c u r r e d i n promoting and registering the company.
Pre-incorporation or preliminary contracts These are contracts entered by promoters to acquire properly or some right for the company. In Kelner vs. Baxter LR Z. Kelner agreed to sell a hotel to Baxter who was acting agent for a company which was about to be formed.
It was held that Baxter was personally liable on the contract as the company was not in existence after its incorporation. The company is not liable for the Act of the promoters done before incorporation. In Newborne vs. Sensolid Ltd 1Q B45 Newborne a director, entered into acontract in the name of a company before its incorporation. He signed his name in a contract on behalf of the company.
It was held that there was no contract. Position of promoters as regards pre-incorporation contracts1. Company is not bound by pre-incorporation contract even where it takes the benefit of the contract entered into on its behalf. A case law in this is in English and colonial produce company Ltd Re 2 ch A solicitor prepared the memorandum and articles of a company and paid necessary taxes and other expenses to obtain the registration of the company.
He did this on the instructions of promoters. The company cannot enforce pre-incorporation contract. A case law in this point is Natal Land and colonization company Ltd vs. Pauline Colliery and development syndicate Ltd Ac Ratification of a pre-incorporation contract. Where contract is entered into by with both parties aware of the non-existence of the company, the contract is a deserved to have been entered into personally and promoters are liable.
To validate the pre-incorporation contracts a new contract has to be entered into with the other party in which case promoters cease to be liable F o r p r o m o t e r s a c t i n g o n b e h a l f o f t h e c o mp a n y a b o u t t o b e f o r m e d i t i s s a f e advisable to provide in the contract that: It defines the relationship of the company a n d creditors the outside public as well as the shareholders. It also enables creditors and the outside public knows the range of permitted business of the company.
In Ashbury Railway Carriage and company vs. Importance of memorandum. Purpose of memorandum There are two purposes of memorandum: Preparation of the memorandum Schedule 1 of the act gives examples of various types of memoranda. Section 5 provides that memorandum of every company shall be in English and printed.
Contents of memorandum Section 5 of the companies Act stipulated the memorandum should compose the following clauses. Clause 1 The name Promoters must enquire from the register as to whether the proposed name of the company is available for registration and is not considered undesirable; this should be done before filling the memorandum or even before its preparation.
Section 19 provides that promoters may reserve a name pending registration of the company for a period of thirty to sixty days. Such license is given if the Attorney General is satisfied that: Under section 20 a company can charge its name by special resolution and with t h e a p p r o v a l of the registrar signified in writing. A special resolution usually requires twenty-one days not to the members and three fourths majority of the votes at general meeting.
The above section provides that the company may change its name if it is almost like that of an existing company, if the registrar so directs within six months of its registration. The name does not affect any rights or obligations of the company or any legal proceedings by or against it section 20 4. Clause 2 Registered office Every company must have a registered office from the day on which it begins to carry on business or within fourteen days after incorporation w h i c h e v e r i s earliest; to which notices and all communications can be made section Section states that notice of the address of the registered office, and of any change therein, must be given to the register within 14 days after incorporation or of the change.
The registered office is not necessarily the headquarters of the company. Documents that must be kept at the registered office include: When drawing the object the subscribers should note the following: Objects clause in the memorandum has to state.
A c company cannot continue to peruse subsidiary objects after the main object has come to an end. In crown bank Re 44 ch D A company objects clause enabled it to act as a bank and further invest in securities and land and to u n d e r w r i t e i s s u e o f s e c u r i t i e s. Incidental acts: Anything i n c i d e n t a l to the attainment or pursuit of any of the express objects of the company will unless expressly prohibited to be within the implied powers of the company.
Evans vs. Brunner, mond and company 1 ch A company engaged in manufacture of chemicals proposed to devote substantial sum of money to the encouragement of scientific education. It was proved that this will in the end benefit the company, but a shareholder objected that this was b e yo n d t h e p o w e r s o f t h e c o m p a n y. Foster vs. London, Chatham and Dover company 1 QB A company acquired a piece of land for the purpose of its railway.
The railway was erected on arches. The company left the arches as workshops e.
Forrest vs. Manchester etc Rly company 4 Ltd A railway company had the authority to keep boats to be supplied for a ferry. It employed the boats for excursion trips to the sea when they were not wanted for the ferry.
It was held that the use of the boats was incidental to the main purpose and was within the powers of the company. The following activities have also been held incidental to carrying of business: In the following cases, companies were found to engage in activities beyond their powers. London county council vs.
Attorney General AC The council had the power to run tramways. It ran omnibuses to feed the tramways. It was held that this was outside its powers as the omnibuses business was in no way incidental to the business of working tramways. Stephenes vs. Mysore reefs Kangudry Mining Company Ltd 1 ch The company wanted to work in Ghana. It was held that elsewhere could not be taken to mean any other p l a c e outside India.
Ways a company can engage in a wide variety of business: Promoters have given a list of several businesses that the company may engage itself. Clause IV. Liability clause Promoters must indicate a Whether the liability of the company is limited or unlimited. Clause V The capital clause States the registered share capital divided into shares of a fixed a m o u n t. Registered capital is also called nominal or authorized capital.
The clause is omitted in the companies with unlimited liability and the companies limited by guarantee having not shown capital. Clause VI. Association or subscription clause.
General form of clause. If the several persons whose names and address are subscribed are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of the memorandum of association and we respectively agree to take the members of shares in the company set opposite of our respective names. Alteration of the memorandum Section 7 provides that a company cannot alter the conditions contained in the memorandum except in the cases; in the mode and to the extent for which express provision has been made in the companies Act.
Section 8 gives seven instances where a company may alter its objects after a special resolution. The proposed alteration become effective unless within thirty days o f t h e resolution, objection is made to the courts in which case the alteration will be effective if the court affirms it.
Section 8 7 after a resolution altering the objects, a printed copy o f t h e memorandum must be delivered to the registrar within fourteen days after the expiry of the period allowed for objection.
No alteration can be made requiring a member to take up further shares o r increasing his liability unless he agrees in writing section A c o mp a n y m u s t n o t e n g a g e i n a c t i v i t i e s which are not expressly or impliedly authorized by the memorandum, otherwise any act which exceeds the powers of the company will be ultra vires and void and thus cannot be ratified even by the assent of the whole body of directors.
The directors entered in to a contract to lay a r a i l w a y i n Belgium and the company in a general meeting subsequently purported to ratify the act of the directors by passing a special resolution to that effect.
H o u s e o f L o r d s h e l d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d b e n o ratification of a contract made by a company ultra vires even though every single member consented there to. The contract to make a railway in a foreign country was a nature not included in the memorandum.
The company was therefore held not liable for the breach of contract. The doctrine of ultra vires approved but qualified in Attorney General vs.
Great Eas tern Rly compan y 5 AC by adding that the doctrine ought t o b e reasonably understood and applied and whatever may fairly be regarded as incidental to or as consequential upon those things which the l e g i s l a t u r e h a s authorized ought not to be held ultra vires to the company.
In Re Germany Date coffee company it was held that w h e r e t h e substratum of the company fails, the heart of the company fails and the body c a n n o t f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t t h e h e a r t. The main issue in the doctrine of ultra vires is that a company not being a natural person should not be held responsible for its own acts or agents acts that are beyond its powers and privileges.
Peter Port constables AC It was held the company could sue for damages for the wires. If transaction is beyond powers of directors but within powers of the company, the shareholders can ratify it by a resolution in a general meeting provided they have all facts relating to the transaction to be ratified.
Effects of ultra vires transactions 1. Any member may obtain an injunction of the court to restrain the company from committing an ultra vires act. Directors may be held personally liable for ultra vires payments. Directors entering into ultra vires contracts may be liable to the third partyf o r b r e a c h o f w a r r a n t y o f a u t h o r i t y. D i r e c t o r s w i l l b e l i a b l e t o t h e l o s s e s incurred to third parties provided the third party does not know that they have no authority to enter in a particular contract.
In weeks vs. In order to make directors personally liable it must be established that their act amounts to an implied misrepresentation of facts and not of law.
If funds have been spent ultra vires in purchasing some property, its right over the property will be protected. Ultra vires contracts have no legal effect and are void. E v e r y p e r s o n dealing with the company is expected to know its powers and if he enters into a contract that is inconsistent with them he does so at his own risk.
Exceptions where a party can sue on an ultra vires contract. But he cannot claim any right to securities held by the original creditor. A company will be liable for any tort of its employees if: A company will not be liable for ultra vires torts.
They are conditions introduced for the benefits of creditors and the outside public.
They should not violate any provision of the companies Act as these will make them null and v o i d. It was held that the restrictions were invalid and petition could be presented. Define duties, rights and powers of the governing body. Determine the mode and the form in which the business of the company may from time to time be made.
Section 9 stipulates that the articles must be registered before incorporation. Section 11 states a company limited by shares ma y adopt all or any part of the regulations of table A are not excluded o r modified, these regulations shall be the regulations of the company so far as they are applicable.
Table A in the first schedule to the act is provided as a specimen form of articles of association. Section 12 provides that if special articles are registered they must be: Contents of Articles of Association. As an internal constitution promoters and later the members can indicate any rules they may wish to have so long as such rules are permissible.
In relation to company law and propose coherent solutions to practical. Please note that attendance at seminars is compulsory and registers will be kept. Not free to disregard the principle of Salomonmerely because it considers. Concept paper Note on the Approach. Following the recommendations of the Company Law fqlfh htpdfyjd Committee known as the Bhaba Committee set up in the. Pre-incorporation contracts. Bills of exchange and promissory note. Liability for company debts where membership is below legal minimum.
Free e-book on Computation of Depreciation under Companies Act, Any minority members of the merging companies, may be obtained free of charge, from the. Free lectures download on Company Law including slides, notes, handouts, exam papers, past exams in pdf and ppt for school and college and much more. The Dutch East India Company received its charter in , but is generally recognized as the first.
Retrieved The same is not true of notes in electronic formats such as font arab di pdf Word or PDF. Free lectures download on Company Law including slides, notes, handouts, exam papers, past exams in pdf and ppt for school and college and much family apgar pdf more. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Uy Siuliong vs. Director of Commerce and Industry. Doctrine of Constructive Notice and Indoor Management. Nevada Lawyer: How to significantly reduce the file-size of PDF documents.
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