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The finding can be a description or depiction of an object that was previously unclear, so that once examined becomes clear. Tugas kita hanyalah menerima. One of the greatest works ever created is the Haruhi Suzumiya series written by Tanigawa Nagaru. Princeton University Press. The Japanese pop culture enthusiast who initially was embarrassed to show themselves. Because the development of student behavior as a learning goal is only possible through the optional learning experience.
The members of the community are friendly to newcom- ers who want to learn; thereby they have the chance to ask everything concerning light novel. In that community, there is some illustrator that gathered to help author that lack the skill to illustrate the characters, so the authors could seek for illustration services. The main target of the light novel community is adolescents and young adults, as the most light novel is set on the life of school children, whether middle and high school or early college that filled with surprises; for examples, magic theme, meeting with spirit, superpower, or other fantasies theme that make light novel have more genre than general novel or literature.
As time passes, light novel does not to be set in Japan, as many emerging authors have an Indonesian background, however, manga-style illustration still accompanies it. Light novel could be a promising creative industry for authors as a professional career. The creative industry regarding light novel in Indonesia has not reached the same level as Japan. Several obstacles are constraining the development of the Indonesia-style light novel.
But with the birth of the Creative Economy Agency in Indonesia, it is a beacon of support to the growth of light novel. As Indonesia still categorized as a developing country and that is also but not limited to the development in the field of literature, particularly light novel.
Wikiba Literacy Sharing is a project that made possible through the collab- oration with Wikiba Asia, an online portal providing news and entertainment about Japanese pop culture. This research aim is to help aspiring novice author to help them tackle the subject in making a light novel in Indonesia. Educating Indonesian novice authors; this research also made possible with the collaboration with Light Novel ID, Rimawarna, and pop culture enthusiasts in Indonesia that helps the design of the syllabus.
By educating the novice authors with a series materials to improve their knowl- edge and understanding about light novel. Through this research, it is expected to help share literacy for light novel au- thors and Japanese pop culture enthusiast that have an interest in this particular novel style, either by localizations the original version of light novel or by writing light novel set in Indonesia.
As mention previously, light novel is new and growing market in Indonesia. Based on the objective of the research, two following research questions are posed: Publish by Yen Press in North America Light novel is a style of Japanese novel that primarily targeted teens and young adults. Structure of a light novel is less complicated than general literature be- cause of the less sophisticated words. Light novel employ simpler structure and simpler words making them an easier read.
Established in June and mainly operate in Bandung, Indonesia. Wikiba Asia hosted the program activities of this research. The community accommodates beginner and intermediate to polish their creativity and skill in writing light novel. This community also shares related events, resources, news, and opportunity to its members. With the light novel coming from Japan and already had a fan based in Indonesia providing an oppor- tunity to grow and develop new creativity in Indonesia.
This research seeks to encourage light novel author and aspiring author to adapt light novel in Indonesia while helping light novel author and aspiring author to more accustomed to the light novel genre. This research is also expected to contribute to the growth of the Indonesian creative industry, particularly in the form of light novel 1. Presents the literature review concern- ing of the mass communication, mass communication theories, and Internet as a medium of mass communication.
Explains the design of the project that include concept, target, material, and evaluation. The precise framework of each activity in this study is presented with findings from each action cycle. The result and analysis. The analysis from the results guideline for replication the process. The conclusion of this study. This section present them separately. The concept usually in- cludes aspects such as knowledge, technology, values, beliefs, habits, and behaviors that are common to humans.
Marshall  state that in a simple society there is usually only one form of integrated culture carried by all member of the society. Meanwhile in a more complex society, thus this cultural entity has many layers covering the dominant culture and the various sub-cultures. One of the most critical differences in complex societies is the differences be- tween pop culture and high culture.
High culture, in general, includes classical music, dance, poetry, painting, serious novels, and others of culture that is ap- preciated by a small number of educated society or those who have high social status. On the other hand, pop culture or sometimes also called mass culture, are far more spread and easily accessible to the masses.
The primary interest of pop culture is for entertainment, and its form is mostly dominated by music, comic books, sports, and fashion. According to Sullivan et al. Hence, Sullivan states that pop culture is a culture that favored by most people. In Japan, the term pop culture is hard to find its equivalent. According to Hidetoshi Kato , the term pop culture could be equated with Taishu Bunka terminology. However, the equation of the term is also not without problems due to the meaning of Taishu Bunka itself is mass culture.
Japanese pop culture in-general includes television shows, movies, manga, anime, music, and fashion. The most famous Japanese pop culture in Indone- sia are anime, manga, music, and fashion. Japanese pop culture is spreading not only in Japan but also in various counties. Many people love this pop culture. The process of imitation originated from the knowledge of Japanese pop culture that obtained continuously, i. The development of Japanese pop culture in Indonesia cannot be separated from the role of the community around them.
The role of community in this instance is because the community has a share in the procurement of Japanese themed shows. At first, the community was scarce, but now new community emerges every year.
The Japanese pop culture enthusiast who initially was embarrassed to show themselves. However, today, more and more are emerging and making a new network of friends. In the late s, Japan began to change their diplomatic strategy to fit the current globalization trend that poses new challenges.
One of the strategies used by Japan is to develop post-modern cultures, in addition to harnessing traditional cultures that have already existed before. Anime, manga, fashion, pop music, food, a novel that included light novel from young creator finally began to occupy an essential position in Japanese cultural activities at an international level.
It is undeniable that naturally this activity is commercial and have strong links to trade policies, such as protection of intellec- tual properties and participation in international festivals. Japan is capable of taking advantage of pop culture as a means of diplomacy, as evidenced by the seriousness of the Japanese government to focus on pop culture as a part in the Diplomatic Bluebook with a program titled Cool Japan.
Even the Gaiko Foramu Diplomatic Forum , a monthly diplomacy-related magazine published by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has a special section for pop culture related articles as a diplomacy tool on several issues. The influence of Japanese pop culture in a various part of the world cannot be doubted.
Anime, manga, and light novel are becoming increasingly global and very accessible in many languages, the style of youth clothing began to follow Japanese orientation; also, Japanese music increasingly being played everywhere. It is not unusual if the sales of Japanese pop culture products are soaring high in numbers, such as CD sales, even pre-order numbers that were made outside Japan achieved one million copies.
Japanese cultural research clubs are growing in numbers and not only that, some of the clubs are even studying it specifically. Japanese culture festival is an attraction for people around the world, Indonesia is included.
Japan Foundation holds an annual event called JakJapan Matsuri. It is a large-scale event and managed to attract hundreds of thousands of visitors in one day.
Some Japanese cartoon successfully dominated national television. The Japanese cartoons filled the premiere time slot on television which is after school hours and on Saturday or Sunday morning.
Japanese cartoons or better known as anime has managed to spread its in- fluence on all parts of the worlds. One real evidence is that back in its heyday, Pokemon was broadcast in more than 65 countries and translated into 30 lan- guages. The Indonesian youth of today are familiar with the Japanese pop culture; as a result, they demand that they collaborate in the creative industry in Indonesia which began to develop with the establishment of Creative Economy Agency witch become a place for the creative content maker in Indonesia.
From the vast creative industries created, the Japanese sub-culture;s cultural collaboration conducted by the Indonesian youth has taken quite a lot of creative industry sectors in Indonesia.
Especially in the field of audiovisual, starting from the market sector of art goods, craft, design, interactive game or video games, music, performing arts, fashion, to culinary. Up until now, arts, crafts, fashion, and interactive games or video games, including light novel being the most contributive sectors, readily observable and have a significant impact on introducing Japanese pop culture to the people of Indonesia.
Not to mention, Comic Frontier or known as Comifuro for the big annual convention held to accommodate young self-published comic artists and illustrator in Indonesia that help introduce and sell his or her works directly to their fans. As for light novel, there are creative efforts from the light novel authors who eventually gave birth to various communities as a place for creativity. This Facebook-based community later changed the name to Light Novel ID to avoid unnecessary confusion with the instant messenger with the same name.
The community accommodates the creativity of beginners and intermediate author who are still learning to wrestle the world of literature, exceptionally light novel.
The craft and fashion sectors, both are also caught the attention from the In- donesian youth to collaborate their creation with Japanese pop culture, especially in the manufacture of costume play or cosplay attire and lolita fashion sector. On the craft sector, GoodGuyNeverWin is the leading in local action figure and handcraft toys. In the interactive video game sector, Indonesia is considered quite competitive and can hold on its own against South East Asia countries.
Showing talents of its young generation to promote Indonesia through the creative industry in the video game sector. The video game itself takes much influence from Japanese pop culture. In Indonesia, some famous video games were developed by the local developer that generate overseas hype. One prime example is DreadOut, a survival horror video game developed by Digital Happiness studio from Bandung with a mystical story element that was based on local folklore and featuring local ghosts that popular in Indonesia society.
From the mobile video game, Target Acquired that were developed by Touchten studio, is considered as the Indonesian Mega Man or Rock Man in the Japanese market that gain popularity in From the various examples of the creative industry sector, where young In- donesians collaborate with Japanese pop culture, it can be seen that they want a creative industry that can support their hobbies, talents, and interests in the influences of Japanese pop culture they already knew and love.
European culture heavily in- fluences the modern literature itself and many inherited old literature . Yomi- hon1 , Kokkeibon2 , and Ninjobon3 are a popular form of the novels in the early Meiji period, which also is a late Edo era literature. At the time, the authors that wrote that three genres were called gesakhusha. One of the authors that represent the Meiji era is Kanagaki Robun, who was very keen on the change of times, cul- tures, and habits of people in the Meiji era.
Kanagaki Robun describes the habits of the Meiji society with Kokkeibon. However, after Jiyutu Minke Undou appears, seijishosetsu political novel began its widespread use as political propaganda. The appearance of light novel at first caused the influence from outside Japan. Enomoto  states that are in the s many overseas fantasy novels aimed at middle and high schoolers or in other worlds young adults.
Some of them come in the form of high fantasy4 , and low fantasy5. The introduction of the concept of fantasy in Japanese literature became the start of the fantasy boom in Japan. At the time, Japan pictured fantasy as a story of another world like in Europe mixed with swords and magic.
Not only fantasy, but science fiction novel also gives a considerable influence on the birth of light novel. Ootsuka Eiji states that light novel has a specificity that describes the fiction that exists in the anime and comic world. The specificity is called anime mangateki realism . It can be said that Arai Matoko was the first person who inspired the depiction of anime and manga in a novel. The concept depicting anime and manga is called anime mangateki realism.
The novel that has this concept is called light novel. Ootsuka, bring this theory closer to light novels because light novel uses illustration in anime and manga style using the Kyarakutaa Database Character Database. Light novel is a novel that contains and describes the characters of fiction. The history of light novel began when a novel published by Sonorama Bunko in was created. The type of mold itself was very cheap and thin, just like the current light novel. Record of Lodoss War also received a warm welcome in the similar prints format.
All of the above works were later adapted into anime.
Light novel itself in Bahasa Indonesia is known as novel ringan. From this ambiguous name, sometimes people having a hard time distinguishing this form of print from the general novel that is commonly encountered.
In fact, light novel is a kind of novel that resembles teen literature. The content is light, as the author employ kanji characters which is easier to read. That word means the light novel, is not a word used from the English language, but the naming of the Japanese language itself. Then in the s, the theme of adventure in Japan began to undergo signifi- cant changes. The usually serious adventure story is then combined with comedic elements for the first time in the Slayer series by Hajime Kanzaka.
A few years later, Media Works build a pop literature printing called Dengeki Bunko, now known as the biggest light novel publisher. The Boogiepop series is their first major publication, which was later adapted into anime and received a great deal of appreciation which then attracts people to literature. Authors at Dengeki Bunko slowly began to attract the attention of the readers and then became very famous around After the success of Haruhi Suzumiya series, many publishers and readers started to take light novel seriously.
To this day, light novel becomes the primary source for anime adaptation in Japan. True to the Japanese pop culture, light novel is a kind of novel that filled with anime- manga style illustrations. Each light novel has at least some illustration tucked between the pages. The front page also follows the demography of a manga.
In contrast to novel or prose works in general, light novel has similarity with manga that most works are published weekly on certain days. Each title has space in a weekly magazine; usually each week they publish one chapter of each title. Once it is finished with a story arc, then all chapters that been updated for weeks will receive a paperback release, and if the story is good, it becomes a series that will spam for years to come.
Stories in light novels s then to be a series, so there is plenty of volume in a single title or series. Light novel is rapidly growing in Japan. Each year hundreds of titles are published. Every year here also many light novel writing contests hosted by a various publishing company to find new talents. Dengeki Bunko is the largest, with a total submission of more than 6. The main prize is a sum of one million Japanese Yen or around 9.
Light novel itself is sold with a light novel label, not as a novel. The price of each book itself is very cheap, unlike most novels or other serious literary works. Sales in light novel alone are among the most profitable industries in Japan. One of ht Japanese Government site said that sales of light novel reached 20 million Japanese Yen and around 30 million copies sold in Currently, the Japanese anime industry relies closely on light novels in their production wheels. Light novel is considered neck and neck with manga in term of anime adaptation, and much well-known anime come from light novel, for example, Toradora!
The hype of light novel in Japan makes the Americans also started publishing light novel in their county. American publisher who became the main powerhouse for light novel is Yen Press. Unfortunately, the author of light novel in Indonesia still have difficulties to find a publisher to publish their works. Self-published can be daunting; they will be bothered in the term of ISBN handling, printing, illustration, and other related matter to the published works.
The lack of repository in accommodating creativity will affect the growth of fans as well. The reason they do not know where to channel their work will lead to the thought vain effort.
The light novel author in Indonesia also has the desire to make his or her works famous in Japan where light novel can be a promising business field. The creative effort of Indonesian light novel author finally gives birth to various communities as a repository of creativity. This community is based on Facebook so that the members can upload their work to the group sections. Inside the community consists of beginner and in- termediate author who are still learning to wrestle in the world of literature, exceptionally light novels.
The members of the groups are friendly and always excited to newcomers who want to learn, so they have a chance to ask what light novel and other important points regarding what light novel is. In the community are also gathered young illustrators who will help authors who do not possess the ability to draw, so they can outsource the task to an illustrator to illustrate the character, so the authors can focus on writing the light novel.
The primary target of this light novel community is the teenagers and young adult because most of the light novel is based on the life of an adolescent. Most light novel is based on the life of the school children either junior high or senior high school and sometimes even college that was filled with surprises such as magic, an encounter with supernatural being, superpower, and other fantasies that make the light novel have a broader genre than a general novel.
Later in , Shining Rose Media finally gained a great opportunity to published two light novels which were adapted into anime: In addition to Shining Rose Media, there is also another publisher like Katalis Pustaka, but not all of the focused on light novel. Although most light novel author now publishes they own works, Shining Rose Media is the first publisher to publish an original light novel from Indonesia titled She Loves You by Rekai in Light novel author in Indonesia publishes their works by selling in through different pop culture convention or put it online as a web novel in services like Wattpad or sometimes a blog.
Ministry of Trade of Indonesia in the book Creative Economy Development of Indonesia states that creative Industry is an industry driven from the utilization of creativity, skill and individual talents to create welfare and employment by generating and exploiting the creativity of the said individual.
The creative industry is an industry with its own appearance on the excellence of creativity in producing creative designs that attached to goods or services. The creative industry is a collection of the industrial sector that prioritize creativity as the main capital in producing products and services. The design industry in this regard can be viewed as the core component of a creative industry, where its implementation can occur in a variety of sectors.
The industry was developed to support the increase of value-added products in the development of others industrial clusters. The characteristics of the creative industry can be determined a follows: An industry whose main elements are creativity, skill, and talent that has the potential to improve welfare through the offering of intellectual creations. The creative industry consists of providing creative products directly to customers and supporting the creation of creative value in other sectors that are indirectly related to the customer.
Creative products have the characteristics: In the creative industry component, the main capital of the creative in- dustry is intellectual, and the creative industry contains elements of art, technological culture, and business.
The Republic of Indonesia realized that the creative industry, which focused on the creation of goods and service by relying on skill, talent, and creativity as intellectual property, is the hope for Indonesian economy to rise up, compete and gain excellence in the global economic stage.
In the creative industry itself, there is an integral part of the creative economy, the creative industry. Indonesia began to see that the various sub-sector in the creative industry have the potential to be developed because Indonesia has creative human resource and rich cultural heritage. After rolling out for about three years in Indonesia, the creative economy and creative industry are getting warmly discussed by both the government, private, and the creative people themselves.
The Government of Indonesia notice the potential of the creative economy and establish Creative Economy Agency on January 20, The principle of action is in user education similar to what will be devel- oped through information literacy programs that develop the ability of users in determining the nature and range of information needed, accessing information needed effectively and efficiently and evaluate information and sources critically, using information for specific purposes .
The community is a place for fans especially those who have interest, talent, and ability in writing or drawing illustration and another thing that related to the Japanese pop culture. The community can also be a combination of practitioners or those who already have expertise in translating Japanese, drawing illustration, or experienced author and individual who are starting to take an interest in the field.
They join because there is a purpose of practicing or working, for example by making comics, manga, cosplay, or light novel with Indonesia local wisdom. A community of practice is defined as a group of people who are informally tied tighter in a common interest, gathering regularly to share knowledge and expertise, to improve learning and create shared values for groups or organizations .
The community of practice is an excellent tool to learn knowledge through- out the organization and to trigger not just only to reuse knowledge for higher efficiency but also the creation of knowledge for greater innovation .
The establishment of a community of practice can encourage knowledge0sharing activities such as workshop, seminars, meetings, and mentoring sessions within an organization. In this community of practice, member volunteer to partici- pate in everyday practice and are very keen to hone their skills, so the quality of knowledge-sharing in these circumstances is guaranteed. Therefore, an organi- zation needs to explicitly become a community of practice who play an essential role in the creation and management of knowledge .
Without the desire to learn from ourselves and the common interests of its mem- bers, a community will not last long. The most straightforward language is that the community must have something that attracts others outside the members, something that can be useful to them and not just to get together and socialize. This common interest can be a profession, competence, knowledge, specialization, social relation, or network development.
The community of practice is a learning process with the social concept. This is how the community of practice works.
For example, when we engage in a study group. Usually, we do a group to tackle something complicated such as doing homework or when we do not understand a particular lecture in class. By studying in a group, other friends can explain the unintelligible materials and the seemingly tricky subject in class. When learning in a group, there is no teacher. All participant actively helps each other to explain to each other things that are difficult.
By doing group study, we will be sway away from embarrassment, sponta- neously answer, refute, or ask something because the learning atmosphere is in- formal. This is the purpose of learning socially. The reason we can comfortably ask without fear or ask for a slower explanation is that there is a social and emo- tional closeness between group members.
We can learn quickly and will to share knowledge because of the high level of trust between each other. Also, we also fell a degree of similarity. Both students are trying to get good grades in the test later, not teachers who are higher status and usually feared. Besides, good social interaction during group study also determines the success of learning. The same with a community of practice. The success or failure of a community is highly dependent on the social relations among its members which are built on trust, shared goals and interests, and equality between each member.
If these conditions are met then the community of practice can run well, continue, and will provide added value for its members. A mature community will have a very dedicated member. They are bound and willing to do anything for their community. Even at the highest level and for some, the community becomes more important than the work itself. You may often see some colleagues keep coming to their old office to get together with the community.
They did not come to meet with their former bosses or former subordinates. They come because of their attachment to the community. The community is formed because of the need for self-actualization and appre- ciation. Many changes are happening in society. These changes are in line with the increasingly strong globalization that is sweeping across the world.
Included regarding culture.
During the early s, pop culture from Asian countries began to enter In- donesia. In Indonesia, the development of Japanese pop culture is fast and can be seen with the existence of various communities that are formed related to comics, manga, cosplay, and light novel.
Japanese pop culture is engulfing young people, especially those who love the manga and its characters and novels that are not too heavy to digest for young people. Light novel as part of the Japanese pop culture slowly become a conversation in the among pop culture enthusiast, with its light, easy-to-understand, and peri- odically inserted illustrations that made readers more engaged while reading light novel. With the help of the Internet then many light novel fans form a community in social media like Facebook and Discord to form a forum for novice author who has an interest and ability to write light novels that lead to creating a place to share among light novel fans.
The introduction of Japanese pop culture as a new idol for them has a consid- erable impact on young people. Frequently they dress up following the characters he or she likes or buy DVD, Blu-ray, various merchandise, or form specific com- munities in accommodating their similarities like Japanese pop culture.
The influence of Japanese pop culture on the younger generation in Indonesia enables the emergence of fanatic fans which ultimately give color to their lifestyle. Behavior or lifestyle itself is a matter of reflection of the imitation process. The power of society does not entirely determine lifestyle emphasis but on the effective negotiation of a particular life-world, then transformed into a parable for oneself may fluctuate as the result of a thriving and open social culture .
Given the changing behavior, appears to be a process of imitation or the imita- tion that takes place through social learning. The process of imitation according to Gabriel Tarde  is a form of excellent example that is down between one individual with another individual in life, so imitation behavior can be said as the desire of someone to be someone else. That way, when the person is doing an imitation, then he or she at least understand what will be imitated.
Furthermore, Baldwin  said that imitation could be divided into two kinds, namely, the first non-deliberated imitation with the intention to imitate imitation and do not understand the purpose of the imitation. Second, a deliberate imitation which can be explained as a deliberate imitation and know of the purpose of imitation it does. In this case, when associated with a context of imitation by fans of Japanese pop culture, the imitation of these fans is included in the deliberate imitation because they imitate their idol by knowing their purpose and intent on imitating the idols.
About the discussion of the imitation theory, a positive relationship between imitators and new imitation can make the imitation possible . Impersonation because of the learning process imitated from others who later referred to as social learning. An individual who sees and observe the behavior of others who later in the example and usually tends to be the same as the behavior of the person imitated is said to be the social learning process.
These feelings of empathy that will encourage an individual to imitate the behavior of other individuals in addition to the environmental condition, it also has a significant influence on the learning process.
Bandura  explains four processes that occur in social learning, namely: Attention Process The process of learning to imitate begins with the appearance of an event that can be observed directly or indirectly by a person.
The event may be an action or a thought pattern. Learning something can be done if the object or the subject to be imitated is properly noticed. Something is noticed because the even appears prominent, occurs repeatedly, and raises positive feelings for the observer. Retention Process It is a process whereby an individual must be able to store and remember something to imitate.
Memories of the observed behavior depend on the mental impressions and verbal representation. The stored materials are often altered in relation to the existing knowledge of expectations of the individual learner. Reproduction Process In this stage, the individual is considered successful when able to reproduce the behavior or actions he or she observes. This process is a time when observers imitate what is observed.
Motivation Process In the process of motivation, there is an external affirmation and self- affirmation, which in the external affirmation of imitation will be done if others also do the same thing. In other words, Individual observed the model and learns new behaviors and depends on the concentration the in- dividual received. In addition to the above explanation, the imitation process can also be seen through the ideas expressed by Sociologist Roger and Shoemaker  who mapped that process of idol influences to fanatical fans through several processes: Interest Stage is a process where fans are interested in the appearance of their idols.
Evaluation Stage: Trial Stage is a process where fans begin to find interesting things from their idol like fashion or lifestyle which then begin to try to imitate by the fans. Adoption Stage is a process where fans will decide whether to imitate or not to imitate their idol after experiencing previous processes.
From both, it can be seen that when fans want to imitate their idol they will go through some social learning process and not happen all of a sudden. Education also determines the quality of a nation, the better the education of a nation than the more qualified the nation.
Education itself according to the Presidential Instruction No. Furthermore, in the Law No. Education is a conscious and well-planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and learning process so that learners actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual power, self-control personality, intelligence, noble charac- ter, as well as skills needed by him or her, society nation, and state.
According to Notoatmodjo , education is an effort of persuasion or learn- ing to the community, so that the community will act practices to maintain solve problems and improve their wellbeing. The effort of humanizing human beings through education is organized in accordance with the views of life and social background of each particular society Tirtarahardja et al, According to Fuad in his book education is the activity and effort of man to improve his or her personality by fostering his or her potentials, namely spiritual think, intention, taste, inventiveness, and conscience.
Oemar Hamalik Education took place and implemented in all living environments, both spe- cially created for both formal and informal non-formal education. Further ed- ucation is all the efforts of adults in their association with children to lead their physical and spiritual development toward maturity. Education is one of the main pillars in determining social change, changes to the progress and welfare of quality life.
From several definitions of education above it can be concluded that education is a persuasive effort that is consciously done to prepare learners to be able to develop the potential that is owned entirely in entering life in the future.
Therefore, there are two purposes of education, 1 giving direction to all educational activities and 2 something that can be achieved by all educational activities. As a component, educational goals occupy an essential position among other educating components. It can be said that all components of all educational activities are directed or aims toward achieving a goal.
Thus, activities that are not relevant to the aims are distorted, not func- tional, even false, so they must have prevented from occurring. Here it appears that the purpose of education is normative, which contains elements of norms that are coercive, but not contrary to the nature of the development of learners and can be accepted by the community as a good life value.
Regard to such an essential function of purpose. It becomes imperative for an educator to understand it.
The purpose of education is abstract because it contains abstract values. Implementation is only possible if the goal is made clear explicit , concrete, and the scope of its content is limited.
In other words, the general purpose needs to be detailed, so that it becomes a specific and limited purpose then it can be quickly realized in practice Tirtaraharja et al.
Furthermore, Tatang states that education aims to manifest human beings who believe, pious, intelligent, physically and mentally healthy, have adequate skills, noble character, have high awareness and always self-introspection, responsive to the problem, able to solve the problem well and rationally, has a beautiful future. The purpose of education is a combination of objectives that are the develop- ment of individual abilities optimally with the goals of a social nature to be able to play its role as a citizen in various environments and social groups.
The execution of an educational process will determine the success of the educational goals.
The two facets are interdependent. The management of the educational process includes the scope of macro-meso- micro.
Process management in the macro scope of government policies that are typically outlined in the form of Education Act, Government Regulation, Minis- terial Decree, Director General Decree, and other government documents about education on a national level.
Management within the scope of meso is the im- plication of national policies into operational policies within the responsibility of the Regional Office of the Department of Education and Culture. The scope in micromanagement is the application of education policies that take place in school or classroom setting Tirtarahardja et al.
The primary purpose of managing the educational process is the learning pro- cess and learning experience.
Because the development of student behavior as a learning goal is only possible through the optional learning experience. Self- education activity at any time throughout life is always a necessity regardless of the outcome. The principle of such education implies that education is inherent with the human-self because with it human beings can continuously improve their independence as a person and as a member of soci- ety, increase self-fulfillment, and directed to self-actualization.
Concerning the environment, they can adapt adaptively and creatively to challenges of each time Tirtarahardja et al. Many concerned literacy activists are organizing activities that can increase the interest and ability to read and write because the overall literacy in Indonesia society is still low. Conditions of reading interest in Indonesia is poor. Indonesia is ranked between Thailand and above Botswana. Indonesia in term of infrastructure that supports reading should be above most European countries.
In reality, people than to have better reading skill than writing. The term literacy generally refers to the skills of reading and writing, meaning that a literate is a person who has the mastery of reading and writing skill in a language. In reality, people neglected their ability to read and especially write because of the convenience of speaking and listening.
Notes 1 Yomihon is an ordinary reading book containing literary value 2 Kokkeibon is a novel with a comical element 3 Ninjobon is a novel that focused on the romance story that aimed at young female 4 High fantasy, or epic fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy  defined either by the epic nature of its setting or by the epic stature of its characters, themes, or plot.
In Japan, this term is also known as ken to mahou or sword and magic 5 Low fantasy or intrusion fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy fiction where magical events intrude on an otherwise normal world . Since light novel is a relatively new subject outside Japan, the material regarding light novel are limited. Wikiba Literacy Sharing uses the community of practice as the foundation of the program because of the lack of content.
In addition to educating the participants, this program aims to build a collective learning envi- ronment among the participants and subject-matter experts so their interactions can produce resources that could affect their practice. The community of practice approach could help to build the foundation for a knowledge database for the participants that the conventional teaching method cannot achieve.
By using the community of practice, the program stimulated knowledge sharing between the participants and participants, participants and subject-matter experts to create new knowledge. The Stakeholders that involved in the venture are: Or sometimes also referred by the name domain expert is a person with specialized knowledge or skill in a particular area or topic. In this instance, the content for the syllabus for the Wikiba Literacy Sharing is from a team of subject-matter experts.
This research targets novice author in Indonesia that interest in writing light novel. Novice author in this context are people who have some writing skill but never actually publish their works, self-publish or by a publisher. Participants in this study are all Indonesian nationality that currently lived in Indonesia and a member of the Light Novel ID Facebook group. Bahasa Indonesia is the primary language of communication in class. Three activities were put into action to address those challenges.
Those challenges are 1 syllabus creation, 2 knowledge sharing, and 3 out- put evaluation. As mention before, the program goal is to become a means of education for novice authors that are interested in light novel.
After analyzing the challenges, each addressed by specific action employed in corresponds to the particular problem. A team of subject-matter experts is designing the syllabus, multiple sessions for participants to interact with, and rubric grading for the output evaluation. Subject-matter experts will then carry out a lecture each week to the participants. This program is expected to encourage and help the novice author to produce creative content in the form of light novel with Indonesia local flavor.
This pro- gram also is part of the Wikiba Asia effort to promote light novel in Indonesia as well as a contribution in rising Indonesia literacy ranking. Target participants are novice authors from the Light Novel ID Community; they should have some basic knowledge in fiction writing but never self-publish or publish their work in print format.
Each week is composed of one subject-matter expert session and one discussion session with one-week interval in-between; 1 Introduction to Light Novel; 2 Ground- work —Creative Process; 3 Illustration; 4 Editing and Publishing. Regarding light novel, Wikiba Literacy Sharing was created with the intent to encourage the author in making a light novel that was first introduced by the Japanese.
The opening of this program in its implementation requires proficiency to operate several devices as a supplement to this activity, including: Personal Computer The personal computer is a major device used in this program. With a personal computer, it is not possible to carry out these activities. Participants while using the computer can communicate with the subject-matter expert and other partici- pants.
Discord was used as the application for communication by using voice and text. Discord was created by replaced Teamspeak and Skype. Smartphone A smartphone is no longer a foreign object to us. The smartphone is a mobile phone that has a computer-like function. For most people, the smartphone is a device that presents a sophisticated feature like electronic mail, Internet connec- tivity, and media player.
Different from Teamspeak, Discord is free to use. Everyone can create their own server for voice chat with friends, college, and family. This application is available for both personal com- puter and smartphone. Discord is not just an application for voice chat only, but Discord can also be used as a text chat application and share screen like Skype. Internet as Literacy Learning Tool How to find reliable information on the Internet can be done by using a tool that is available on the Internet or online, one of them is a search engine like Google, Bing, and Yahoo.
With these tools available, users can find information from various sources and languages. This simplicity also requires the users to get used to the hardware and software that used like how to operate a computer, typing, understand various terms in the field of Internet.
The evaluation was carried out to determine the extent to which the success of the program with includes: The success of the program syllabus of the activities with the community to improve their knowledge of the novice authors 2.
The output or works produced by the participant after finished the program 3. How to the participant react to the program, whatever they are satisfied with the implementation of the program with the result of their one-shot chapter after finishing the program 4. How is the feedback from the survey results and reflection of their activities, including feedback from the subject-matter on the progress of the ability of the participants and from readers that review the participants work The summary of the sessions in this study can see after the following Table 3.
For the in-depth finding and evaluation will be addressed later in Chapter 4. This research also used a survey approach to find out the depiction of the literacy sharing on the community of practice that created for this program and to know about the obstacles and incentives from the literacy sharing in the Community of Practice in the program.
While the object of this research is to study the subject-matter to get more directed data. The object of this research is the implementation of literacy sharing in Wikiba Asia. Literature review to study theories related to the information and digital literacy in a community that has similar interest to Japanese pop culture, especially the writing of light novel. A field study was conducted in a form of pre-survey to the Light Novel ID community in Facebook Group to get information and general description about the implementation of the Wikiba Literacy Sharing program in de- veloping novice author who has interest and has a basic writing skill, along with the supporting and inhibiting factors of the program.
Observation is a systematic observation and disagreement of the symptoms that appear on the object of the research . Observation itself is divided into two, direct observation and indirect observation.
Indirect observa- tion means that observation is not made at the time of the event that will be investigated.
The observation that used here is a direct observation so that the data can be obtained in the form of the activities undertaken by the participants and subject-matter experts in the process of Wikiba Literacy Sharing program in writing light novels. The interview is a meeting of two people exchanging information and ideas through questions and answers so that it can be constructed meaning in a particular topic. The interview is the process of obtaining information for research utilizing question and answer by doing it face to face between the interviewer with the respondent using a tool called Interview Guide.
Another opinion said that the interview is a method of data collection by way of asking something to the re- spondent, the way is by talking face to face. Based on some opinion, it can be concluded interview method, is a method of inquiry by using the questions given orally and implemented with face to face directly with the respondent.
In this study, interview methods were used to extract data from participants and subject-matter experts. In addition, the questionnaire is a set written questions that are used to obtain information from the respondent in the sense of a report about his or her personality, or things he or she knows From the statement stated above, it can be said that the questionnaire is a list of written questions, given to a group of people about a problem to get the information related to the problem.
Questionnaire in a study aims to get a picture of the contribution of activities in Wikiba Literacy Sharing as a means of education to increase knowledge and understanding of the participant as a novice author regarding writing light novel. The steps to analyze the data can be done in the following way: Data Reduction Reducing data means summarizing, selecting key points, focusing on what matters, looking for themes and patterns. Thus, the reduced data will pro- vide a clearer picture and make it easier for researchers to collect the next, and look for it when necessary 2.
Data Display Data Presentation After the data is reduced, next is to display the data. In qualitative research, the presentation of data can be done in the form of brief descriptions, charts, and relations between categories, flowchart and the like.
The most often used in presenting the data in qualitative research is the narrative text. Drawing Conclusion and Verification The third step in quantitative data analysis is drawing conclusion and ver- ification. The finding can be a description or depiction of an object that was previously unclear, so that once examined becomes clear. Qualitative data analysis is done to answer the research question about the Wikiba Literacy Sharing program as an educational means in improving knowledge of novice light novel author in Indonesia and how Wikiba Literacy Sharing program in increasing the knowledge of novice light novel author in Indonesia.
After analyzing the data then proceed to validating the qualitative data as follows: Triangulation Triangulation is generally a method done by researcher to cross check or to re-examine information from different information source, time, and method. Member checking is a process of asking a question to one or more partic- ipants.
This activity was also carried out to retrieve the findings from the participants and to ask them both orally and in writing about the accuracy of the research data. Perseverance Observations Researchers are consistent with a variety of ways in relation to a constant or tentative analysis process and finding relevant feature and elements of a research focus to be more closely watched.
This is done to produce maximum research depth. Then tested the level of validity and reliability. Data from the quantitative research can be either numerical data or quantitative description. After the data is successfully collected, then the data analysis was carried out. The data analysis techniques used is statistical calculation. Correlation analysis was used to see id there was any relationship between the program with the increasing comprehension and knowledge about light novel.
In the quantitative method, the instrument used is a questionnaire. This questionnaire is used to measure the contribution of Wikiba Literacy Sharing program as an educational means in improving the knowledge and understanding of novice author in light novels. While the primary instrument in this study is the researchers themselves, who assisted and supported by other instruments.
For the qualitative research method, the researcher used interview and observation In the quantitative method, the instrument used is a questionnaire. This questionnaire is used to measure the contribution of the Wikiba Literacy program as a means of education in improving the knowledge and understanding of the novice author in light novel.
Furthermore, Gronlund and Linn This means a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data or in- formation to determine the level of achievement of learning objectives received by learners.
Harlen Participant This topic analyzes the reaction of the participants toward the program such as their engagement, motivation, and curiosity to learn about light novel. Infrastructure This topic describes the environment that the program took place. This topic also explains the equipment in the program and the issues regarding the environment and equipment.
Feedback This topic describes the result of the survey and reflection from the participants and subject-matter expert. Donald L. Kirkpatrick created the four levels in as the subject of his dissertation. Worldwide used of the model was recorded between the s to the s. The degree to which participants find the training favorable, Reaction engaging and relevant to their jobs Level 2: The degree to which participants acquire the intended knowledge, skills, Learning attitude, confidence and commitment based on their participation in the training Level 3: The degree to which participants apply what they learned during training Behavior when they are back on the job Level 4: Although educators rave about rubrics, the vast majority are instructional fraudulent.
Problems arise when rubrics are too task-specific or general or lengthy and confuse the skill tested with the test itself . Short Story Grade Rubric used are as follow Table 3. Table 3. The main charac- clearly de- described. Most Most readers very little readers could would have about the describe the some idea characters.
There are no logical. Organization The story The story is The story is a Ideas and is very well pretty well little hard to scenes seem organized. The to be ran- One idea or One idea or transitions domly ar- scene follows scene may are some- ranged. Clear clear. The program itself is a collaborative program between Wikiba Asia and Light Novel ID, which is a community for the light novel enthusiasts.
The pilot program was divided into four classes and held on December 9th, 16th, 23th and 30th, After the following program, the novice authors will be able to write his work in the form of light novels that are not only set in Japan background as the origin country of Light Novel itself but also Light Novel set with an Indonesian background. This cycle featured a single subject-matter expert, Fathi Anshory the author of Black Lambda Thesis1 series.
The first program of Wikiba Literacy Sharing program consisted of four classes and done entirely online by using Discord. The first week of the program was an introduction to light novel and authorship. The second week was about the groundwork of the creative process, story, and settings. The third week was about characters, writing point of views, actions, and dialogs. The final week was about adding sprinkles such as complex character, minor character, and plot twist.
First Week: Introduction to Light Novel The first week divided into a brief introduction to light novel and authorship. In the first week was attended by three participants because one has other matter to attend. The first-week class split into two halves. Before the first half topic official start, an ice-breaking session took place, introducing the subject-matter expert with the participant.
The subject-matter expert started on the brief introduction to the history of light novel in Japan and Indonesia and various trivia in-between. The second half topic was about the authorship; the subject-matter expert started with sharing his insight as a light novel author. Participants then also share their view on the subject, creating more of a sharing environment than a class. Second Week: Groundwork The second week marks the start of the material that related closely to writing write novel.
The focus of this session is to try to get the participant to get their creative juice flowing in planning a light novel. Participants of the program are given provisions by the subject-matter expert on how to write the unique and exciting first paragraph. The challenge to finish a light novel begun at the time of writing the opening sentence.
A useful and exciting opening sentence will provide clues about the theme of the story and how the tone of the story is lifted from the light novel. Third Week: Most novice authors are afraid of the failures they may encounter when writing the light novels.
Subject-matter expert job to give a belief to participants that are writing a light novel is not as difficult as imagined, which makes it difficult is the negative thoughts of the novice writers and the lack of understanding to start writing. On this occasion the subject-matter expert motivates how to write a novel, the first is to dare to start it. Participants as novice authors should not be afraid if in the end the novel is enjoyed by their self.
It is better than holding the imagination only in the minds of the participants. Fourth Week: Sprinkles In this fourth week of the activity still at the same time and sharing the same ses- sion, the subject-matter expert explains the material on how to write a good and satisfying ending for the readers. Besides the predictable story endings, often the ending of the story is imposed, dramatized or too dive and give an impression that the author wants to end the story immediately.
If that is the case, then the story that initially has been captivated becomes raw, not interesting anymore and upset the readers. Execute an ending of the story to be mastered by the participants as an au- thor.
Although only one or two paragraphs, an ending will show the wholeness of a story. It will further deter- mine the fate of the book whether interested or even the fate of the author himself when publishing their work, whether to be interested or not.
The good ending is an ending that presents a conclusion of the story that lures and acceptable for the readers. Which means, even if the ending is not fun but the reader is impressed and can enjoy then receive it, does not necessarily judge that the story is not compelling.
The subject-matter expert explains there are some commonly known story endings such as happy ending, sad ending, and a tragic ending. All that three are included in the close ending category closed ending means an ending that gives the end of a story without leaving any more questions. This literacy program as an alterna- tive to developing the ability of writers in writing light novels during limitations in producing the form of this light novel works.
The results of interviews with participants about the material presented in the program were enough to get the response and enthusiasm is high enough. In the material also inserted how the support from the executor to overcome the problems faced by the participants as a novice writer in publishing the results of his work. Participants work their draft in the second week and discuss it with the subject-matter expert before submitting the final version at the end of the fourth week.
Table 4. They could talk about main- stream entertainment Japanese pop culture content such as the ongoing anime and manga. Buku Persembahan Penerbit TransMedia. Reviews Review Policy.
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